Although the percentage of land devoted to growing GM crops continues to expand globally, the speed of that expansion has slowed for the fourth consecutive year. Is market saturation for herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant...
Although the percentage of land devoted to growing GM crops continues to expand globally, the speed of that expansion has slowed for the fourth consecutive year. Is market saturation for herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant soybeans, maize, cotton, and rapeseed on the not all-too-distant horizon? According to the ISAAA (International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications) the four biggest biotech crops were grown on 134 million hectares last year, up just 7% on 2008, which saw 9.4% expansion. Back in 2007 and 2006, expansion hit 11.3% and 12% respectively. In spite of the more stately pace of growth, however, the ISAAA’s annual statistics also conveyed another message – the eighty-fold increase worldwide in GMO acreage since 1996 makes biotech crops the fastest growing crop technology ever.
GMO opponents from Greenpeace tried to downplay the significance of the global GMO acreage statistics, while biotech interest groups like EuropaBio used them to underline the huge success and benefits that agribiotechnology has to offer Europe. But this year’s data show that only 3 of 25 countries significantly increased GMO cultivation, with Brazil at the top of the list (+35%) followed by India (+11%), and Canada (+7.9%). All of the other 6 major biotech countries – which plant 95% of all GM crops – grew slowly or declined. But after China gave the go-ahead for commercial cultivation of GM rice last November, the ISAAA now expects the Asian market for GMOs to expand until 2015. Rice is the second most important staple food globally. Further growth is also expected from the development of drought-tolerant wheat. All major agribiotech companies last year revived their GM wheat programmes after US farmers reversed an earlier decision against it (see EBN 1-2/2010). That seems unlikely to happen in the EU – the world’s most important wheat producer – where resistance to GMOs remains entrenched.
USDA looks at ways to ‘educate’ Europeans about GMOs
According to the ISAAA, GMO acreage declined from about 108,000 hectares in 2008 to 94,750 hectares last year in the bloc, and Germany has dropped GM maize completely. But according to a recent report (No. IT1003) commissioned by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) entitled “How to influence EU public opinion about agricultural biotechnology”, resistance to GM crops in the general population is less pronounced than has been suggested by the media, policy makers or anti-GMO activists. “Current statistics about support for biotechnology in the EU are misleading, because they often mask disinterest as disapproval,” says study author Cynthia Barmore. “83% of the European public has never searched the Internet for information about biotech,” she argues, “and only 7.5% talk about it frequently.” The study concludes that EU citizens can therefore be educated about biotechnology, and its authors have already identified a target – Italy. 65% of Italians are generally positive about biotechnology, claims the report, and from 2002-2005 support for biotech food rose there to 54% of the population. It also says 23-46% of still-sceptical consumers would change their minds about personal consumption of biotech foods if presented with arguments on health, low pesticide residues, or the environmental-friendliness of GM foods. PR campaigns, it continues, would be most effective if these messages were disseminated by trusted sources such as medical, scientific or consumer organisations or – important for Italy – the Vatican. Politicians should only play a minor role, it says. It does not mention a firm date for the beginning of any campaigns.
Glasgow – British biotech company ReNeuron Group plc and a team of doctors in Scotland have won final approval to start a pioneering clinical trial to assess whether a novel stem-cell therapy can help patients disabled by stroke....
Glasgow – British biotech company ReNeuron Group plc and a team of doctors in Scotland have won final approval to start a pioneering clinical trial to assess whether a novel stem-cell therapy can help patients disabled by stroke. The treatment involves injecting neural stem cells developed from human foetuses into patients’ brains in the hope they will regenerate areas damaged by stroke, thereby improving both mental and physical function. The final green light from Britain’s Gene Therapy Advisory Committee (GTAC) was given one year after Reneuron received an OK from Britain’s Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency in January 2009. The first patient in the Phase I clinical trial is now expected to receive treatment in a Glasgow hospital during the second quarter of this year. In total, 12 patients will receive ReNeuron’s ReN001 cell therapy between 6 and 24 months after having an ischaemic stroke, and their progress will be followed for two years.
Given the recent increases in the capacity of next-generation sequencing systems from companies like Applied Biosystems, Roche, and Complete Genomics, the integration and analysis of genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and proteome...
Cancer is a disease that develops over time as a result of the accumulation of many factors that promote tumour growth and metastasis. These basic general mechanisms of cancer have been known for quite some time, yet progress in the development of effective therapies has been incremental and painfully slow. For instance, in Germany alone the dreaded disease causes 270,000 deaths annually, and in spite of the many new targeted therapies now available, cure rates for most common forms of cancer have improved little over the years. In fact, the new, targeted therapies typically tend to help only a small fraction of patients – a result primarily due to the molecular differences between different tumours of the same clinical classification. Our experience in sequencing tumour genomes has shown us that they typically exhibit tens of thousands of somatic changes. Every tumour is therefore unique, and that means the response of every patient to a particular treatment is destined to be an individual response. The scientific and medical community now understands very well that tumours from the same clinical classification may require very different treatments. The diagnostic industry has also begun to respond with incremental approaches, correlating individual biomarkers like Her2/neu overexpression or the presence or absence of KRAS wild type with go/no-go decisions for specific therapeutic regimens. However, since hundreds of genes are causally implicated in cancer development due to mutation or other genetic alterations, even targeted diagnostics like these are providing relatively small improvements in therapeutic efficacy. For instance, the KRAS diagnostic only improves the response rate of the corresponding combination EGRF inhibitor/Irinotecan therapy in second-line colon cancer from 10% for the KRAS mutant group to a still-meagre 35% for the KRAS wild-type group. Even in most cases of response, the cancer eventually becomes resistant to the therapy, and the patient dies. In fact, this particular trial – the “181” trial – was statistically insignificant even in the improvement of overall survival. Two significant developments now allow us to take a more integrated approach to selecting appropriate cancer therapies for patients: – The results of decades of oncological research have established a large body of knowledge on the set of pathways considered relevant to cancer, and have characterised – often in great detail – the molecular effects of the many somatic alterations observed in many types of cancers. As a result, we now have a large, well-characterised map of hundreds of the proteins involved in processes related to cancer. This “circuit diagram” of the cell is popularly illustrated in the Weinberg “Pathways in Human Cancer” poster, which is now de rigueur in biology laboratories all over the world. – Increases in sequencing throughput and decreases in per-base-pair cost over the past few years now allow the application of genome-scale analysis to the tumour and somatic tissue of each cancer patient, in real terms a “personal genome project” at a cost that can currently be easily funded by a research grant, and is considerably less than the price of a single year of treatment (US$100K) with the cancer drug Avastin. If projected continued cost improvements are borne out by events, full genome sequencing will be a real option for the mass market within the next 3-5 years. This combination of global information on cancer-relevant pathways and the ability to obtain a detailed characterisation of the tumour and patient through deep sequencing now allow, for the first time, the development of truly predictive models of drug response in individual patients. Based on a “Virtual Patient” modelling system called ModCellTM, this has now been developed at the MPI-MG, and is being commercialised by Alacris Theranostics.
The “Virtual Patient”
Our “Virtual Patient” system uses relatively conventional mathematical pathway modelling approaches. It is written in an object-oriented programming language (Python), and is designed so that the objects correspond to the components of the cancer-relevant pathways (genes, proteins, protein modification states, complexes, metabolites, etc). Each object is assigned to keep track of its state (e.g. concentration) as well as its functions (e.g. to ‘phosphorylate’ another protein object at a specific amino acid, or to form a complex with a specific dissociation constant). The system is initialised with the starting concentrations of all components, as well as values of the kinetic constants in these differential equations, allowing the system to be solved numerically. The resulting computations allow us to analyse both the kinetic changes, as well as the concentrations of the relevant products in the steady state after a perturbation such as a therapy regimen. Since many kinetic parameters are unknown, we use a novel strategy to overcome this problem (a patent has been applied for), allowing us to construct accurate predictive models of much more complex networks than has been possible up to now. Our current “Virtual Patient” model comprises 1,119 different components corresponding to 333 different genes that are connected by 1,809 reactions. This provides a total of 2,152 different kinetic parameters. As a first step towards individualising therapies in oncology through modelling the effects and side effects of different classes of drugs using the “Virtual Patient” system, Alacris is collaborating in a programme to sequence the genomes and transcriptomes of individual tumour patients2 with a number of research groups and institutions: Hans Lehrach and Bernhard Herrmann at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, the Charité Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Charité Institute for Pathology, the group headed by George Church at Harvard Medical School, and CollabRx Inc. (Palo Alto, US). The first analysis – of a metastatic melanoma patient – is close to completion. For this patient, both the genomes and exomes of tumour and blood have been sequenced to achieve greater than 30x coverage (~90 gigabases blood, ~120 gigabases tumour). In addition, a detailed analysis of the transcriptome of the tumour, tumour-derived cell lines, and cancer stem cells from the same tumour have been carried out (~300 million reads total). These data have been used to generate a comprehensive model of the biology of the tumour, as well as the patient’s key tissues, in the “Virtual Patient” system. The analysis of Patient 1 revealed 667 mutations in 461 different genes, providing a way to explore the dosage-dependent effects of different drugs/drug combinations on the model of the tumour, the tumour stem cells, as well as the patient’s other tissues (see Figure 1). Based on this comprehensive analysis, the patient received a combination therapy of Sorafenib and Rapamycin from his treating physician.
Personalised medicine around the corner
The power of the “Virtual Patient” model is based on the fact that it is a fully deterministic model of the cell that allows us to model many different cell types, as well as cell or organ interactions (e.g. tumour-stroma, pharmacogenetic effects). The model therefore is capable of integrating all types of data, including genome, transcriptome, proteome, epigenome, micro-RNA and phospho-proteome data, with the power of its predictions increasing with the completeness of the available information. The “Virtual Patient” system effectively stockpiles all current knowledge of cancer pathways and mutations, as well as other relevant knowledge. The complete molecular characterisation of the patients’ tumour and somatic genomes, as well as transcriptomes, provide an “index” of everything that we can know about the patient’s disease, which can be collated with everything that we know about cancer as a whole as reflected in the “model”. This allows us to bring the sum total of current knowledge about cancer to bear in the treatment of every patient.
The next steps
Alacris is currently building a next-generation sequencing center in Berlin, which is co-located with the Charité Intitute for Pathology, and plans to use its “Virtual Patient” system in three immediate application areas: for the rational selection of the appropriate therapies for cancer patients who are beyond Standard of Care (eight patients have already been enrolled), for the identification of novel biomarkers, and to support preclinical and clinical research in the pharmaceutical industry in areas such as novel uses of available drugs, or trial stratification in drug development.
Tumour cells change their genetic expression pattern as they progress to states of increasing malignancy, and investigations at the DNA and RNA levels alone do not provide all the information resulting from the translation and...
Cells communicate through a network of different substances that include cytokines, interleukins, and hormones. The secretion of such substances reflects the functional state of the cells and is programmed by gene expression. In the case of tumour cells, the progression to states of increasing malignancy is accompanied by changes in gene expression. With Affymetrix Gene Chip® technology, the transcriptional profiles of different mammary carcinoma cell lines has revealed 86 genes up-regulated and 321 genes down-regulated in invasive versus non-invasive cells. A change in transcription will also alter the pattern of newly-synthesised proteins, and ultimately also protein secretion. However, there is no stringent correlation between the transcriptome and the proteome2-5. A single gene can encode several mRNAs by differential splicing – leading to different versions of a protein – and a newly-synthesised protein is often post-translationally modified in the Golgi apparatus. In addition, several secreted peptides and proteins are synthesised as inactive peptides or protein proforms, which are trimmed just before the secretion process. This was shown for the peptides glucagon or oxyntomodulin for example, substances that are formed from the same origin propeptide – proglucagon – by cell-internal proteinases22. Furthermore, the secretory process by itself is also triggered by intrinsic and extrinsic signals.
Peptides and proteins
Peptides or proteins that are secreted by cancer cells in different states of progression could be possible candidates in the search for new biomarkers. In the past, differences in protein patterns have been analysed in serum or plasma samples from cancer patients, and compared with those of healthy volunteers. The most commonly-employed technology for this purpose is the separation of the different sera through 2D-gel electrophoresis, with a subsequent analysis of differentially-expressed proteins by mass spectrometric methods. In spite of serious effort over the last 10 years, researchers have only discovered a few biomarkers specific for a particular tumour type. One of these is prostate specific antigen (PSA), which is an indicator of prostate cancer. A different and hopeful approach for the early identification of carcinoma is recording different peptide signatures through mass spectrometric detection, followed by hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis of the peptide ion signals. With this method, the group led by Tempst was able to differentiate between healthy volunteers and patients with prostate, breast and bladder cancer, as well as between healthy volunteers and patients with metastatic thyroid carcinoma that show tumour sizes of grade 4 using the TNM classification23-24.
Due to significant variation in the concentrations of different proteins, analysing serum or plasma is still an arduous task, and it is complicated even more by the proteolytic degradation of proteins in the bloodstream or by invasive cancer cells, which possess proteinases at the surface that also degrade proteins. One of the most constraining factors for a successful analysis of low abundant peptides and proteins is serum albumin, which is present in concentrations over ten million times greater than i.e. signaling molecules or hormones. Overall, the six most abundant proteins (albumin, IgG, IgA, haptoglobin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and transferrin) represent 85-90% of the total amount of protein found in serum. Since these proteins hamper a successful analysis of potentially important proteins found only in low concentrations, in one appraoch they are removed before analysis. Here, for filtering out the most common proteins in serum, affinity columns (depletion columns) loaded with multiple polyclonal antibodies are used. However, albumin also serves as a transporter for substances like peptides or steroids, and its removal may also deplete these potentially important molecules from the sample.
Cell secretion analysis
A different approach in the search for new biomarkers is the direct investigation of different cancer cells. Unfortunately, cells only secrete peptides or proteins in very small amounts, and the low concentrations impede investigation by mass spectrometric methods. Large numbers of cells (108-109) are therefore required to obtain sufficient material for successful mass-spectrometric investigations. To avoid the problems caused by the presence of abundant proteins when analysing cultured cancer cells by mass spectrometry, many investigators use FCS-free cell culture media[16-18]. But this approach has a major drawback; most of the cells need the supply of growth factors provided by the serum for substrate adhesion and growth. Without these growth factors, many cells undergo cell death[19-21]. Thus, the protein pattern obtained under these conditions will not represent the functional state of the cells. To decisively improve cell-secretion analysis, we have developed the patented SensScreen® process, which is ideal for this application. First a novel serum surrogate (SensSerum) that is free of low-molecular peptides is used to promote undisturbed growth of the cells under investigation. Due to the lack of these peptides, which normally interfere dramatically with secreted peptides or degraded proteins, secreted low-molecular substances can be detected in very low concentrations by mass spectrometric measurements. In addition, novel magnetic reversed-phase particles (RP-Sensbeads®) with improved protein-binding capacities and a new binding process are used for the efficient and quick isolation of peptides and proteins from cell culture supernatants or other fluids. The isolated substances are then separated and detected by LC-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Using the SensScreen Technologies system, peptides can be visualised at concentrations as low as 10 pM. The technology has for example been used to detect substances that are differentially secreted by a number of malignant mammalian carcinoma cell lines, and has revealed unequivocal differences in peptide secretion patterns. The SensScreen technology gives researchers the ability to investigate peptides secreted by cancer and other cells in culture in an automated and sensitive way, and provides a valuable tool for the investigation of secretion behavior among different cells or cell states.
References A list of references can be ordered from the author
Brussels – The European Commission yesterday changed its GMO policy, with the approval of BASF’s GM potato Amflora for commercial cultivation in the EU and authorisation for the import of 4 genetically engineered maize strains...
Brussels – The European Commission yesterday changed its GMO policy, with the approval of BASF’s GM potato Amflora for commercial cultivation in the EU and authorisation for the import of 4 genetically engineered maize strains (more). Amflora produces starch that does not contain amylose but only amylopektin, making it suitable for industrial purposes. On the same day, Health Commissioner John Dalli announced that the Commission intends to design rules by summer 2010 that allow member states to independently decide whether they will cultivate GM crops but uses a central European authorisation process for GMOs. „All scientific issues, particularly those concering safety, have been fully addressed“, said Dalli. Any delay would have simply been unjustified.“ Industry welcomed the move as a strong signal supporting agribiotech.
Manila – Global acreage of genetically engineered crops reached 134 million hectares (ha) in the last year, according to the annual statistics of the ISAAA (more). Although this is an increase of 7.1% compared to 2008 figures,...
Manila – Global acreage of genetically engineered crops reached 134 million hectares (ha) in the last year, according to the annual statistics of the ISAAA (more). Although this is an increase of 7.1% compared to 2008 figures, overall the expansion of GMO crops has fallen since the record year 2006, when the growth rate hit 12%, followed by an 11.3% growth in 2007, and 9.4% in 2008. One reason may be that GMO development has focused on two traits (insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) in just 4 crops (soybean, cotton, maize and rapeseed) in the last 14 years, and these currrently represent 98.5% of all biotech crops. According to the ISAAA soybeans were planted on 69.3 m ha (+3.5 m ha compared to 2008). Maize grew on 41m ha (+3.5 m ha). Cotton was cultivated on 16.2 m ha (+0.7m ha), and rapeseed cultivation achieved 6.5m ha (+0,6m ha) in 2009. Almost 95% of all biotech crops were grown in 6 of the 25 that use GMO plants: the US (64m ha, +2.4%), Brazil (21.4m ha, +35%), Argentina (21.3m ha, +1.4%), India (8.4m ha, + 11%), Canada (8.2m ha, +7.9%), and China (3.7m ha, –2,6%). The ISAAA said that it expects further growth in China, after Bt63 rice and a Bt maize gained biosaftey certification for commercial acreage from the Chinese government (more...). The ISAA expects further growth in the coming years due to the fact that governments realised that climate change, global population growth and the oil peak in 2050 will challenge crop productivity and quality.
Belgian Galapagos NV’s (Mechelen) experimental inhibitor GLPG0259 of protein kinase MAPKAPK5 has shown a good safety profile in a Phase I study, the company announced in mid-February. Galapagos also said the oral small molecule...
Belgian Galapagos NV’s (Mechelen) experimental inhibitor GLPG0259 of protein kinase MAPKAPK5 has shown a good safety profile in a Phase I study, the company announced in mid-February. Galapagos also said the oral small molecule can be used in combination with methotrexate, the current standard therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Phase II efficacy trials in RA patients are expected to start in Q3/2010. MAPKAPK5 is a new target identified by the firm, which says it is involved in inflammation and collagen breakdown. GLPG0259 blocks MAPKAPK5 action in animals.
Madison – Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) differentiate less efficiently than human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and develop into functional neurons in highly variable amounts. Consequently, they may be not...
Madison – Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) differentiate less efficiently than human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and develop into functional neurons in highly variable amounts. Consequently, they may be not appropriate to investigate human disease mechanisms, according to a new study published in PNAS (doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910012107). Su-Chun Zhang and colleagues from Waisman Center in Madison found that 12 hiPSC lines and 5 HESC lines appeared almost indistinguishable with regard to their morphology, transcriptome and developmental time course, when differentiated to neuroepithlial cells using a standardised protocol. But while various hESC lines differentiated into neuroepithelial progenitor cells at a similar efficiency under defined adherent colony culture, hiPSC demonstrated significant variability, independant of the presence or absence of certain reprogramming factors or the reprogramming method used. While all hESC lines yielded 90-97% of PAX-6-expressing neuroepithelial cells after 15 days of in-vitro culture, hiPSCs reprogrammed with lentiviral methods exhibited lower and variable neural differentiation (15-79%) regardless of the origin of fibroblasts from which they were derived. Similarly, two retrovirally induced iPSCs showed less efficient neural differentiation (15%) and furthermore, use of non-integrating episomal vectors did not alter differentiation efficacy and reproducibility. hiPSCs do not faithfully mirror all the differentiation capabilities of hESCs, according to the researchers. This suggests that there are unknown factors in play that may limit the use of induced cells use in terms of modelling disease in the laboratory, one of the most important potential applications suggested for hiPSCs. Such unknowns would also limit their applicability in clinical settings such as for cell therapies. The researchers believe that progenies of hiPSCs might be epigentically unique and predisposed to generate cells of a particular sublineage. The results of the systematic comparison of hESCs and hiPSCs suggest that hiPSCs seem to respond differently to extracellular factors and are suitable for applications that require the generation of particular cell types. “The results tells us the techniques for generating ipSCs are still not optimal“ says Zhang. “There is room for improvement.“
Brussels – In the last few weeks, BASF officials have been wondering why anti-GMO groups had launched a new campaign against the genetically modified potato Amflora, which is pending for EU approval. On Monday, it seems they have...
Brussels – In the last few weeks, BASF officials have been wondering why anti-GMO groups had launched a new campaign against the genetically modified potato Amflora, which is pending for EU approval. On Monday, it seems they have the answer. The AFP news agency suggested that several EU insiders have annonymously confirmed that the new Commission intends to approve EU-wide cultivation of the potato, which produces starch for industry applications. Sources also confirmed rumours that the Commission will renew market approval for Monsanto’s Bt maize Mon810. On Tuesday afternoon, the European Commission rebutted any rumors that its President, Jose Manuel Barroso, wants to speed up the process to allow the 2 controversial GMOs in the EU. But Barroso said: "In areas such as GMOs, it should be possible to combine the system of the EU to allow GMOs, based on science, with the freedom of each Member State to decide if they wish to cultivate GMOs on their territory." His new health Commissioner John Dalli will lead this change.
Europe is to receive a new Super Commissioner for biotech, as well as the largest budget for research the bloc has ever granted. Even before the start of hearings considering the 26 Commission nominees that began in mid-January,...
Europe is to receive a new Super Commissioner for biotech, as well as the largest budget for research the bloc has ever granted. Even before the start of hearings considering the 26 Commission nominees that began in mid-January, José Manuel Barroso sent clear signals that biotechnology will be made a priority during his five-year term. When he presented his future team in late November, the Commission President concentrated nearly all of the important competencies for biotech in a single person and institution. John Dalli from Malta will lead a strong Directorate General for ‘Health and Consumers’ that is to have additional responsibilities for pharma and vaccines, agri-biotech and cloning. Along with Dalli, two other Commissioners could give significant support to the field. The EU’s first Commissioner for Climate Action Connie Hedegaard (Denmark) remarked during the EP hearings that she wants to step up EU emission reduction targets from 20% to 30% by using green and low carbon technologies – promising news for industrial biotechnology. And the new Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, Máire Geoghegan-Quinn from Ireland, has called for breaking up bureaucratic logjams surrounding the use of D86bn from the European Structural Funds for innovation that she wants to earmark for research and tech transfer within the next Framework Programme, which begins in 2014.
Barroso foresees Dalli taking over responsibilities for the European Medicines Agency (EMA). As chief of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), he will additionally be in charge of overview for all market authorisations in agribiotech, cloning or assessing new technology. The new commissioner will also take the helm at the EU’s Plant Variety Office and the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC), and will assume competencies for consumer protection from the Environment Directorate-General, together with those for the Executive Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC). The reshuffling appears to have resulted from the conflicts that arose between up to 5 Commissioners in Barroso’s last team in the areas of GMOs, cloning and other new technologies.
Positive EP hearing
In his European Parliament hearing, Dalli made it clear that he will seek to push the stalled pharma package, saying he wants to move forward quickly with non-controversial areas like pharmacovigilance and counterfeit medicines. But he was more reserved concerning direct-to-consumer advertising of drugs (see EuroBiotechNews 11-12/2009) by the pharmaceutical industry, saying “we have to bring more patient perspective in the proposal.” “The underlying theme of my work will be Patients First,” he said, but underlined that this “did not exclude a strong commitment that the pharma industry remain competitive.” He also wants to focus on prevention, which could be good news for the diagnostics industry if plans include predictive diagnostics tests. In agribiotech, Dalli indirectly backed the EFSA by saying that science must be the basis for assessments of new technologies. To cope with attacks on the agency, which made headlines after a member of its GMO panel moved to an agribiotoech company, he has proposed regular reviews of independence in various agencies. In the ongoing debate on foods from cloned animals, he said: “I hope that within a year we can come up with a report on how to tackle the cloning issue.” Confirmation of the new Commission is expected after the hearings are wrapped up in February.
7th Berlin Conference on IP in Life Sciences: Big Data, Big Drugs
The health care industry faces significant transformation, driven by a boom in knowledge within biomedical sciences and breakthrough technologies such as gene sequencing. The management of "big data“ will change the understanding of diseases, development of drugs and treatment of patients. more